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Shafi'i Salah Fiqh Series: Lesson 1, The First Pre-Condition of Salah, Covering the 'Awrah

“Shafi’i Salah Fiqh Series; Lesson 1: The First Pre-Condition of Salah, Covering the ‘Awrah”

Compiled by Abul Layth

Updated April 18th 2009

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Introduction

This is lesson one of the SeekingIlm Shafi’ī Salah Fiqh Series. The first lessons will cover the pre-conditions of prayer. Imām An-Nawawī states in his Minhāj that there are five shurūt (pl. of Shart) for Salāh

  • 1. Knowing the time for the prayer.
  • 2. Facing the Qiblah
  • 3. Covering the ‘awrah.
  • 4. Being pure from Hadath – طهارة الحدث (ritualistic impurities, i.e. such as passing wind, being in the state of Janābah (sexual defilement), or menstruating, or generally being out of the state of wudhu’).
  • 5. Being pure of Najasah – طهارة النجس (impurities, such as feces, dog etc). (See Al-Minhāj)

 Imām Al-Mahāmilī says there are seven.

  • 1. Covering the ‘awrah.
  • 2. Facing the Qiblah.
  • 3. That the Salāh time has arrived.
  • 4. Taharah from Al-Hadath.
  • 5. Purity of the body from Najāsah.
  • 6. Purity of the clothes from Najāsah.
  • 7. Purity of the place of prayer from Najāsah. (See Al-Lubāb fi fiqh Ash-Shāfi’ī, Chapter on Salāh)

As you can see, the only difference for numbering is the fact that Imām An-Nawawī abridged the last three conditions of Mahāmilī’s classification into one condition by simply saying: Being pure of Najasah – طهارة النجس. So nothing is truly different, it’s simply an organizational difference. I will utilize Imām Al-Mahāmilī’s order but not his categorization. So we will be starting with “Covering of the ‘awrah” then moving to “Facing the Qiblah” etc.

This lesson covers the first pre-condition of prayer, covering the ‘awrah. I have taken care to bring the Arabic narrations so that the student of the Shafi’ī school can memorize the proofs, or at least begin to recognize words in the language of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). I have used the authentic literature of the Shafi’ī school, relying on the Mu’tamad (established and relied upon opinion) of the madh-hab. However, throughout the series, and including in this lesson, I will make mention of the minority view of the school so that the student can understand that such exists, and in case they ever need to utilize the secondary opinion for whatever need they have. I will occasionally point out the opposition’s view on the topic, so that the student knows the other schools basic opinion.

  I have tried to quote the most eminent scholars of the school and reference all quotes and narrations. You will see that beneath each narration I have included the “takhrīj“, or the research regarding the sources and ways of the transmission. I ask Allāh to allow this series to benefit the student, and to bless our beloved Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

 

The Pre-Conditions of Prayer

Lesson 1: What is to be Covered in the Salāh

A shart  (شرط) or precondition is an act that must be done for the validity of the entire prayer. According to Imām Al-Mahāmilī in his Al-Lubāb fi Fiqh there are seven conditions to the Salāh.

  • 1) That one covers their ‘awrah, and if one cannot find a pure (tāhir) garment, or a garment that has impurities on it and is unable to wash it, it is permissible to make Salāh naked and one does not have to make that prayer up.

Comment by Shaykh Abdul-Karīm Al-‘Umarī: “This is the correct of the two views [of the school]. The second view is that the person prays in a garment that has impurity on it, and then there is no making up of the missed prayer (See Ar-Rawdah 1/288).”

The proof that a person must cover their ‘awrah is established in the following narration:

From Bahz ibn Hakīm from his father from his grandfather who said, ‘I said: Oh Rasūlullāh! Who is permitted to see our ‘awrah and who is not?’ Rasūlullāh (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said,

احْفَظْ عَوْرَتَكَ إِلَّا مِنْ زَوْجَتِكَ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ يَمِينُكَ

 ”Keep your ‘awrah clothed except from your spouse or your right hand possessions.”

The man asked, “What if men are amongst men?” He (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said,

إِنْ اسْتَطَعْتَ أَنْ لَا يَرَاهَا أَحَدٌ فَافْعَلْ

“If you are able for your ‘awrah not to be seen, then do so.”

The man asked again, “What if one is alone?” Rasūlullāh said:

فَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ أَنْ يُسْتَحْيَا

“Then Allāh has more right that you be modest in front of Him [than in front of people].”

Takhrīj: This hadīth is reported by At-Tirmidhī who said it was “Hasan”, Abu Dāwūd, Ahmad, Ibn Mājah, An-Nasā’ī, and Al-Hākim who said, “It is Sahīh” and Adh-Dhahabī agreed. Al-Bukhārī mentioned it in his Sahīh in Mu’allaq form. The words [than in front of people] is reported in a narration of this found in Al-Hilyat-Al-Awliyā’ 7/121.

 

What is the ‘awrah of a man and a woman?

  • A) The ‘awrah of a man is from navel to knees. The proof for this is the following hadīth of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam):

فإن ما تحت السرة إلى الركبة من العورة

“So verily, what is between the navel to the knees is of the ‘awrah.”

And also the Prophet said that when someone marries off his slave or laborer he is not to look at what is between the navel and knees for:

فإنما بين سرته وركبته من عورته

For what is between the navel and knees is from the ‘awrah.”

Takhrīj: Reported by Ad-Dāraqutnī in his Sunan 1/132 and Al-Bayhaqī in his Kubrā 2/229.

The following hadīth proves that the thigh is from the ‘awrah of a man:

غَطِّ فَخِذَكَ فَإِنَّهَا مِنْ الْعَوْرَةِ

The Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Cover your thigh, for certainly it is of the ‘awrah.”

Takhrīj: This hadīth is reported by At-Tirmidhī who said, “It is Hasan.” Al-Bukhārī in his Sahīh in Mu’allaq form, though he weakens it due to mingling in its chain in his Tārīkh Al-Kabīr 2/248.  Imām Ahmad in his Musnad 3/479, Abu Dāwūd 4014 and Al-Hāfith Ibn Hajr responds to those who criticize its chain in his Taghliq at-Ta’liq by quoting many different follow up chains. Imām Al-Bukhārī states in his Sahīh, “It is reported from Ibn ‘Abbas, Jarhad, Muhammad ibn Jahsh that the Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said the thigh was ‘awrah.”

Also the hadīth of Ma’mar reported in the Musnad of Imām Ahmad that goes:

حَدَّثَنَا هُشَيْمٌ حَدَّثَنَا حَفْصُ بْنُ مَيْسَرَةَ عَنِ الْعَلَاءِ عَنْ أَبِي كَثِيرٍ مَوْلَى مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَحْشٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَحْشٍ خَتَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَرَّ عَلَى مَعْمَرٍ بِفِنَاءِ الْمَسْجِدِ مُحْتَبِيًا كَاشِفًا عَنْ طَرَفِ فَخِذِهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَمِّرْ فَخِذَكَ يَا مَعْمَرُ فَإِنَّ الْفَخِذَ عَوْرَةٌ

 

The Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) came into the Masjid and Ma’mar was uncovering a part of his thigh. So the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Cover your thigh Oh Ma’mar! For verily, the thigh is ‘awrah!”

Takhrīj: Reported by Imām Ahmad in his Musnad and Al-Haythamī said in his Majma’: “Its men are all impeccably trustworthy (thiqāt).” It is also reported in At-Tārīkh Al-Kabīr of Al-Bukhārī, and Al-Hākim in his Mustadarak while Adh-Dhahabī remained silent concerning it.

 Also the hadīth of Ibn ‘Abbās (radhiya Allahu ‘anhu) that states:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ سَابِقٍ حَدَّثَنَا إِسْرَائِيلُ عَنْ أَبِي يَحْيَى الْقَتَّاتِ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ مَرَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى رَجُلٍ وَفَخِذُهُ خَارِجَةٌ فَقَالَ غَطِّ فَخِذَكَ فَإِنَّ فَخِذَ الرَّجُلِ مِنْ عَوْرَتِهِ

 

The Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw a man exposing his thigh. The Nabi (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to him, “Cover your thigh! For the thigh of a man is from his ‘awrah.”

Takhrīj: Reported by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad 5/290 and At-Tirmidhī in his Sunan; however, he remained silent regarding its level of authenticity.  It was also reported by Imām Al-Bukhārī in his Sahīh in Mu’allaq form. In the chain of this narration is a man named Abū Yahyā Al-Qattāt who is weak according to the majority of scholars, though this hadīth is used as supportive proof.

The opinion that the thigh is ‘awrah opposes the Mālikī and [minor] Hanbalī view. Imām An-Nawawī stated, “A large number of scholars state that the thigh is ‘awrah, though Ahmad and Mālik in a report from him state that the ‘awrah [for a man] is only the genitalia and buttocks.” This was also said by the Thāhiri madh-hab, Ibn Jarīr (although Al-Hāfith Ibn Hajr casts aspersions on the report from him, see Nayl Al-Awtar where he is quoted Vol. 1 524), and Al-Istakhrī. The above proofs are utilized by the Shāfi’ī school in response to their opponents.

  • B) The ‘Awrah of a woman in Salāh is everything save her hands in face. Imām An-Nawawī states in his Minhāj,

 ”…and as for the free woman, her ‘awrah is everything save her face and hands. And it is a condition of her clothing that the color of her skin cannot be seen.”

 

Shaykh Sulaymān Al Jamal in his Hāshiyah explaining the words of Imām An-Nawawī says,

وهذه عورتها في الصلاة . وأما عورتها عند النساء المسلمات مطلقًا وعند الرجال المحارم ، فما بين السرة والركبة . وأما عند الرجال الأجانب فجميع البدن  

“And this is her ‘awrah in Salah. And her ‘awrah amongst the Muslim women and the mahārim men (fathers etc) is what is between her navel and knees. As for her ['awrah] in front of ajānib (foreign) men it is all of her body.” (Hāshiyat Al-Jamal ‘Alal Sharh Al-Minhāj)

 

The great Shāfi’ī jurist, Imam Taqiyud-Dīn Al-Hisnī said,

 ”And it is makrūh (hated) that one makes Salāh in a garment with pictures on it, and that a woman wear niqāb, unless she is in the masjid and in it are men who are ajānib, and they are not caring about looking, so if she fears that they are looking at her, it is harām for her to lift the niqāb, and this happens in a lot of places such as the going to Bayt Al Maqdis (Jerusalem)…” [Kifāyatul Akhyār 1/181]

Ash-Shaykh Muhammad ibn Al Qāsim Al Ghazzi Ash-Shafi’i said,

“And the entirety of the free woman is ‘awrah except her face and hands, and this is her ‘awrah in Salāh. As for her ‘awrah when she leaves Salah, then her ‘awrah is all of her body.” [Fat-hul Qarīb bi Sharh Al-Faath At Taqrīb page 19]

Shaykh Zakariya Al-Ansāri (rahimahullāh) stated, when discussing Salāh, “And the ‘awrah of a free woman is everything save the face and the hands.” Shaykh Ash-Sharqāwi states in his explanation of this,

وعورة الحرة .. أي : في الصلاة . أما عورتها خارجها بالنسبة لنظر الأجنبي إليها فجميع بدنها حتى الوجه والكفين ولو عند أَمنِ الفتنة

 ”And this is her ‘awrah in Salāh. As for her ‘awrah outside of it, when the ajnabi (unrelated marriageable man) can look at her, then all of her body including the face and the hands, even if there is security from fitnah.” (Tuhfat At-Tullāb pg. 174)

Imām Taqiyud-Dīn As-Subkī said,

“And what is the closest (in opinion), from what our companions have produced is that the face and the hands of a woman are ‘awrah in nathr (i.e. looking) and not in the Salāh.” (Quoted by Al-Khatīb Ash-Shirbinī in his Mughnī Al-Muhtāj)

The proof that the woman’s face is not ‘awrah in Salāh is what is reported from ‘A’ishah (radhiya Allahu ‘anha):

حَدَّثَنَا هَنَّادٌ حَدَّثَنَا قَبِيصَةُ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ سَلَمَةَ عَنْ قَتَادَةَ عَنْ ابْنِ سِيرِينَ عَنْ صَفِيَّةَ ابْنَةِ الْحَارِثِ عَنْ عَائِشَةَ قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَا تُقْبَلُ صَلَاةُ الْحَائِضِ إِلَّا بِخِمَارٍ 

“Rasūlullāh (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘The Salāh of the mature woman is not accepted except when she is wearing a khimār (veil on the head that covers her hair and neck).”

Imām At-Tirmidhī grades this hadīth hasan and then says, “Imām Ash-Shāfi’ī said, ‘It is not permitted for a woman to expose her skin and hair in Salāh.” It was authenticated by Ibn Khuzaymah in his Sahīh, reported by Abu Dāwūd, Ahmad, Al-Hākim in his Mustadarak saying, ‘It is Sahīh upon the conditions of Imām Muslim’ and Adh-Dhahabī agreed.

To read more on the ‘awrah of a woman in the Shāfi’ī school please see the following article: http://seekingilm.com/archives/167

 

The Woman’s Feet

There is disagreement regarding a woman’s feet. Are they ‘awrah or not? Imām Al-Ghazzālī states in his “Al-Wasīt”,

وظهر القدم عورة وفي إخمصيها وجهان

“And the tops of the feet are ‘awrah, and regarding the soles of the feet, then there is two views (i.e. they are and they are not).” [Vol 2, page 174]

There is a minority view reported from Imām Al-Muzanī, the early erudite student of Imām Ash-Shāfi’ī, wherein he stated, “The feet of a woman are not ‘awrah.” (Recorded by Imām Al-Khatīb Ash-Shirbīnī in his Mughnī Al-Muhtāj, Taqiy-ud-dīn Al-Hisnī in his Kifāyat Al-Akyār, as well as others.)

The living Shafi’ī jurist Amjad Rashīd stated in one of his fatāwa,

مذهبنا أن ستر قدم المرأة في الصلاة واجب

“Our madh-hab is that the woman covering her feet is obligatory (wājib).” Although he does give minor dispensation for the opinion of Al-Muzanī (see:  http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=3&ID=3747&CATE=387 )

The argument that the woman’s feet are ‘awrah stems from the principle that the entirety of a woman is ‘awrah, unless proof is given otherwise, as the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “The woman is ‘awrah.” (Tirmidhi who said ‘Hasan Sahīh’ and Ibn Khuzaymah in his Sahīh) Furthermore, there is a specific text regarding this issue reported from Umm Salamah (radhiya Allahu ‘anha) that states,

حَدَّثَنَا الْقَعْنَبِيُّ عَنْ مَالِكٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ قُنْفُذٍ عَنْ أُمِّهِ أَنَّهَا سَأَلَتْ أُمَّ سَلَمَةَ مَاذَا تُصَلِّي فِيهِ الْمَرْأَةُ مِنْ الثِّيَابِ فَقَالَتْ تُصَلِّي فِي الْخِمَارِ وَالدِّرْعِ السَّابِغِ الَّذِي يُغَيِّبُ ظُهُورَ قَدَمَيْهَا

From the mother of Muhammad ibn Zayd  who said I asked Umm Salamah (radhiya Allahu ‘anha)as to what clothing a woman should wear while praying. She said, “Pray in the Khimār (that which overs the head)  and the Dir’a that is long enough to cover the tops of the feet.”

This is also reported from Umm Salamah as a question to the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) although the majority of scholars say that it is weak because nearly everyone who narrated the report did not mention the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) therein, and the one who was mistaken in this report was a man by the name of Abdur-Rahmān ibn Abdullah ibn Dīnār who has criticisism against him (as said by Imam Al-Mundhirī). So the strongest report is that this is a statement of Umm Salamah and her verdict, which the majority of Shāfi’ī jurists cling to.

 

Other issues:

  • It is recommended (mustahabb) to wear the finest clothes one has when making Salāh. The proof is in the Qur’ān where Allāh says,

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ خُذُواْ زِينَتَكُمْ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وكُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ وَلاَ تُسْرِفُواْ إِنَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ

“O Children of Adam! Wear your beautiful garments at every time and place of prayer: eat and drink: But waste not by excess, for Allah loveth not the wasters.” [Al ‘Arāf, 7:31]

  • It is mustahabb for a woman to make Salāh in three garments. Imām Umar ibn Al-Khattāb (radhiya Allahu ‘anhu) once said, “A woman should pray in three garments: a dress, a Khimār (veil), and an Izār.” (Reported by Al-Bayhaqī in his Al-Kubrā)

 

May Allāh bless our beloved Sayyid An Nabi Muhammad, his family, companions, & followers. Amīn!

Continue to Lesson 2

 

22 Responses to “Shafi'i Salah Fiqh Series: Lesson 1, The First Pre-Condition of Salah, Covering the 'Awrah”

  1. Farooq says:

    ok up there is says you have to be pure from najasa, then you put in parenthesis dog….Where is the proof for this if you will. Because as far as I know there is a huge misconception in this field. Where the only hadith about dog and purity is in the hadith mentioning a dog liked a bowl so clean it with dirt and water…Nothing to do with Salah. Allahu alim

  2. Abul Layth says:

    Salamu ‘Alaykum,

    Bismillah, wal-Hamdulillah:

    The Shafi’i school deems the dog, its saliva, its body, its hair, najas – an impurity.

    The proof for this is extensive, primarily the Hadith found in the Sahihs that reads:

    حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ عَنْ مَالِكٍ عَنْ أَبِي الزِّنَادِ عَنْ الْأَعْرَجِ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِذَا شَرِبَ الْكَلْبُ فِي إِنَاءِ أَحَدِكُمْ فَلْيَغْسِلْهُ سَبْعًا

    From Abu Hurayrah who said that Rasulullah (‘alayhis salaam) said, “If a dog drinks from one of your vessels, wash it 7 times.”

    The simple question, “Why seven?” The Shafi’i jurists argue that it is washed because the dog itself is najas. In another narration the word “walagha” is used, which means that the dog takes its tongue and moves it around the vessel. In Imam Muslim’s report it states, “The first wash is with dirt”. Dirt/dust, of course, being the soap for the ‘arabs.

    Shaykha Durriah Al-Aytah states in her Fiqh-Al-Ibadaat, “The hair of unslaughtered dead animals, and the hair of animals that may not be eaten (such as cat or mule), whether seperated from them during life, or after its death is [Medium Najasa].” [pg 84]

    Imam Al-Mahamali states in his Lubab, “The dog and pig and everything that is produced from them is najasah.”

    So what is meant is that the saliva etc of a dog is not on the person praying or the place where they are praying at.

    May Allah bless our beloved Sayyid An Nabi Muhammad!

  3. Abul Layth says:

    As I was reading Al-Mughni Al-Muhtaj of Imam Al-Khatib Ash-Shirbini Ash-Shafi’i, I came acrossed his section on the ‘awrah of a woman in Salah and he added a minority view that the tops of the feet are not ‘awrah.

    Then he quotes Imam Al-Muzani, the erudite early Shafi’i and compiler of the madh-hab as saying,

    “The two feet are not ‘awrah.”

    This is not the relied upon opinion in the school but it is good to know a minority view.

  4. fazel says:

    how about the issue of color of skin?

  5. Abul Layth says:

    What do you mean Sidi Fazel?

  6. Musa Ali says:

    Assalamualaikum
    if in language Najasah is what is ‘repulsive to people of sound nature’. What is the shar’i definition of Najasah- and what is the proof for this definition?
    Jazakullah bi khair. wassalam.

  7. Abul Layth says:

    Imam Al-Ghumrawi in Sirraj Al-Wahhaj defines Najasah as:

    linguistically: is that which is deemed unclean.

    Legally: Uncleanliness/dirtiness that prevents the acceptability of Salah.

    The books of hadith are full of ahadith that mention impure substances stopping one from making Salah. One hadith that comes to mind immediately is the hadith of the “Cat”.

    The companion made wudu’ from a vessel that a cat had drank out of. His niece thought that the water became najis water, but the Sahabi said that the Nabi said:

    إِنَّهَا لَيْسَتْ بِنَجَسٍ إِنَّمَا هِيَ مِنْ الطَّوَّافِينَ عَلَيْكُمْ

    “Verily it is not najas. Rather it is something that goes about amongst you.” [Sahih Muslim, the whole hadith is below]

    حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَقُ بْنُ مُوسَى الْأَنْصَارِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا مَعْنٌ حَدَّثَنَا مَالِكُ بْنُ أَنَسٍ عَنْ إِسْحَقَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ عَنْ حُمَيْدَةَ بِنْتِ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ رِفَاعَةَ عَنْ كَبْشَةَ بِنْتِ كَعْبِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ وَكَانَتْ عِنْدَ ابْنِ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ أَنَّ أَبَا قَتَادَةَ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا قَالَتْ فَسَكَبْتُ لَهُ وَضُوءًا قَالَتْ فَجَاءَتْ هِرَّةٌ تَشْرَبُ فَأَصْغَى لَهَا الْإِنَاءَ حَتَّى شَرِبَتْ قَالَتْ كَبْشَةُ فَرَآنِي أَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ أَتَعْجَبِينَ يَا بِنْتَ أَخِي فَقُلْتُ نَعَمْ قَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِنَّهَا لَيْسَتْ بِنَجَسٍ إِنَّمَا هِيَ مِنْ الطَّوَّافِينَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَوْ الطَّوَّافَاتِ وَقَدْ رَوَى بَعْضُهُمْ عَنْ مَالِكٍ وَكَانَتْ عِنْدَ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ وَالصَّحِيحُ ابْنُ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَاب عَنْ عَائِشَةَ وَأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ أَكْثَرِ الْعُلَمَاءِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَالتَّابِعِينَ وَمَنْ بَعْدَهُمْ مِثْلِ الشَّافِعِيِّ وَأَحْمَدَ وَإِسْحَقَ لَمْ يَرَوْا بِسُؤْرِ الْهِرَّةِ بَأْسًا وَهَذَا أَحَسَنُ شَيْءٍ رُوِيَ فِي هَذَا الْبَابِ وَقَدْ جَوَّدَ مَالِكٌ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ إِسْحَقَ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ وَلَمْ يَأْتِ بِهِ أَحَدٌ أَتَمَّ مِنْ مَالِكٍ

  8. fazel says:

    Abul layth,

    1. What I meant about color of skin is that type of clothing (thick or thin) that one use is indefinitely determined one’s awrah. Perhaps you can elaborate further with necessary evidences. Tq.

    2. Popular Shafii’s opinion about two feet, it is not awrah from the bottom point of view. Not the top view or surrounding view.

  9. Abul Layth says:

    1. What I meant about color of skin is that type of clothing (thick or thin) that one use is indefinitely determined one’s awrah. Perhaps you can elaborate further with necessary evidences. Tq.

    There is no need to. I quoted Nawawi in his Minhaj stating such. It is rationally deduced from all the proofs, and the legal reason that they are covered.

    2. Popular Shafii’s opinion about two feet, it is not awrah from the bottom point of view. Not the top view or surrounding view.

    The Mu’tamad of the Madh-hab is that the tops of the feet are ‘awrah, though the sole of the feet there is ikhtilaaf.

    Imam Al-Ghazzaali says in his Al-Wasit:

    وظهر القدم عورة وفي إخمصيها وجهان

    “And the tops of the feet are ‘awrah, and regarding the soles of the feet, then there is two views (i.e. they are and they are not).” [Vol 2, page 174]

    I do need to add this into the article though. Jazaakum Allahu Khairan.

  10. Abul Layth says:

    Shaykh Amjad Rashid, a Shafi’i, clearly believes the mu’tamad is that the whole of the feet is ‘awrah,

    مذهبنا أن ستر قدم المرأة في الصلاة واجب

    “Our Madh-hab is that the covering of the woman’s feet in Salah is obligatory.”

    though he mentions Muzani’s view as dispensation:

    http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=3&ID=3747&CATE=387

  11. Abul Layth says:

    I have updated the article to include a section on the “Woman’s Feet” and have briefly discussed it with proofs. The .pdf is also updated.

    -Abul Layth

  12. fazel says:

    If possible, please cover too, the condition of awrah that is in unintentionally uncovered during solah;
    1)caused by natural wind
    2)caused by wind by fan
    2)caused by human, eg. child

    Thanks.

  13. Abul Layth says:

    No, I will continue with lesson 2 now. What I have went over in lesson one is more than enough proofs for the student.

  14. ahmad ashshafiyy says:

    I would like to know when abu layth will be starting lesson 2 insh Allah

  15. ahmad ashshafiyy says:

    Abu laith this is ahmad ashshafiyy I love tyhe work you have been doing on this site but when will we see more your freind ahmad

  16. Abul Layth says:

    Sayyidi Ahmad Ash-Shafi’i I have been slowly working on Lesson 3. Lesson 3 will begin our studies in the faraa’id/Arkaan of Salaah – which I have ordered and shaped based off of Abi Shujaa’s Iqnaa’ and the Minhaj of An-Nawawi (radhiya Allahu ‘anhumaa).

    This is the sketched brief introduction to lesson 3:

    This lesson will cover the first three arkān: An- niyyah (the intention), standing in the Salāh, and Takbīratul-Ihrām which will include an in depth study on the sunnah issue of ‘raising one’s hands’ (rafa’ yadayn).

    I wanted to concentrate on rafa’ yadayn utilizing the arguments, specifically, of Al-Bayhaqi in his Khilaafiyaat – using the mukhtasar of course, as well as the supplemental material provided by other A’immah of the Shafi’i school.

  17. Harun says:

    Salam,

    Who is imam al-Mahamali? Could you give a short bio please?

    Greetings,

    H.

  18. Admin says:

    Here is the bio of Imam Al-Mahamili:

    http://seekingilm.com/archives/616

  19. Zay says:

    Assalamu Alaikum, Sidi Abu Layth

    Last year my, neighbors dog ran up to me and licked my hand. Therefore, taking a dispenation in the Shafi school, I washed my hand with soap 7 times. In other words, I put soap on my hand and then washed it 7 times with water.

    Is what I did correct? Or did I have to mix the soap with water and THEN wash my hand with it, in the same way that one mixes earth with water to the same thing?

    Any clarification would be much appreciated.

    • Rafael says:

      Wa `alaykum as salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.

      This happened last year, and you’re asking now? You probably washed your hand enough to remove whatever impurity was on it, and probably did so using pure, unmixed water at one point. Next time for future reference, wash your hand properly or take Imam Malik’s ruling.

  20. Zay says:

    Thanks for that, Sidi Rafael. The reason I ask was because when people wish to use earth , they are supposed to mix the earth with water in a container and THEN wash their hands with it. Therefore, this made me doubt the way I did it because I did not mix the soap in water in a container and then pour it over my hand. I merely put soap directly on my hand and washed it 7 times with pure water.

  21. Salam to All

    Please take a look at the website and share. Only traditional and classical authentic material on the site and its updated daily.

    http://islamictext.wordpress.com

    Salam,
    Allie

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